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56-M, Quaid-e-Azam Industrial Estate, Lahore, Pakistan

Smog: Types, Effects, and Precautions

Smog: Types, Effects, and Precautions

Smog is a type of air pollution that reduces visibility and makes it hard to see clearly. The term "smog" was first coined in the early 1900s to describe a mixture of smoke and fog, often resulting from the burning of coal. 

Posted on: 11 Nov 2023

Smog in Lahore, Pakistan:

Smog has become a persistent and significant environmental issue in Lahore, Pakistan, in recent years. This problem is primarily observed during the winter months, typically from October to February. Several factors contribute to the formation and exacerbation of smog in the Lahore region.

Distinguishing Smog from Fog:
Fog is a low-lying cloud primarily composed of suspended water droplets, giving it a white appearance in natural-color satellite images. On the other hand, industrial smog tends to develop in cool, humid settings and contains numerous minuscule aerosol particles, resulting in a grayish appearance.

Photochemical Smog:
The smog we commonly encounter today is called photochemical smog. It forms as a result of the interaction between sunlight and specific atmospheric components. When sunlight reacts with nitrogen oxides and at least one volatile organic compound (VOC) present in the atmosphere, airborne particles and ground-level ozone are produced, leading to the creation of smog.

Types of Smog:
 There are two main types of smog:

  1. Los Angeles smog, which predominantly occurs during the summer months in subtropical regions. It is primarily composed of gases, including carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons.
  2. London smog, more commonly associated with temperate climates, primarily forms between November and January. It is primarily composed of a mixture of various particulate matter enriched with substances such as sulfur, nitrogen, carbon oxides, and soot.

Effects of Smog on Human Health:
Smog has a significant impact on human health, leading to a wide range of health issues. Children and the elderly are particularly vulnerable to the adverse health effects associated with smog. Common side effects of smog on human health include:

  • Respiratory Problems: Smog can irritate the respiratory system, leading to symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and a sore throat. It can exacerbate pre-existing respiratory conditions like asthma and bronchitis.
  • Irritated Eyes and Skin: Smog can cause eye irritation, redness, and itching. It can also lead to skin problems, such as rashes and dryness.
  • Headaches and Fatigue: Breathing in smog can lead to symptoms like headaches, fatigue, and general discomfort.
  • Long-term exposure to smog is associated with a higher risk of chronic respiratory diseases, decreased lung function, and increased mortality rates.

Effects of Smog on the Environment:
Smog has detrimental effects on the environment and our surroundings, including:

  • Increased nitrogen levels in the soil, which can render the soil infertile and hinder plant development.
  • Diminished presence of ultraviolet rays, reducing the natural source of vitamin D, affecting both animals and plants.
  • Formation of haze in the atmosphere, reducing visibility.
  • Creation of acid rain, which can make lakes and streams acidic, further harming aquatic ecosystems.

To protect yourself from smog, consider taking the following precautions:

  • Stay indoors.
  • Wear a mask.
  • Maintain personal hygiene.
  • Wear wrap-around sunglasses.
  • Stay hydrated.

Homeopathic Treatment:
Numerous effective homeopathic remedies are available for addressing the effects of smog. The selection of appropriate medicines is determined based on the specific symptoms experienced by individuals affected by smog. Some important homeopathic medicines for smog-related health issues include:

  • Eye bright drops: Indicated for inflammation of the conjunctiva with discharge and a burning sensation in the eyes.
  • HR 04 (Rhenicine): Effective for catarrh, sinusitis, runny nose, sneezing, and related upper respiratory tract problems.
  • Broncal: Effective for the relief of dry and productive cough.
  • HR-98 (Allegxal): Unique preparation for mucous membrane complaints due to seasonal allergies, including runny nose, sneezing, cough, and cold.

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